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GARDN II Projects (2014-2019)

Civil Aviation Alternate Fuel Contrail and Emissions Research (CAAFCER)




Enhance the T33 emissions instrumentation by the addition of a CPC 3776 ultra-fine aerosol sensor and denuder to differentiate between volatile and non-volatile particles, and then undertake jet emissions and contrail measurement flights.



  •  Civil Aviation Alternate Fuels Contrails and Emissions Research (CAAFCER) achieved the goals of:
  • Comparing the characteristics of persistent contrails formed from petroleum jet fuel and biofuel through a series of 5 commercial biofuel flights with following measuring aircraft (NRC CT-133) analyzing contrail composition;
  • Advancing the state of science of contrail research and Canadian contribution in this field;
  • Enabling the efficient introduction of biojet into the fuel operations of Montréal-Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport;
  • Disseminating project results via