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GARDN II Projects (2014-2019)

Assessment of likely Technology Maturation pathways used to produce biojet from forest residues (The ATM project)




Advance the development and production of biojet fuels in Canada from sustainable biomass feedstocks.

The project will assess the potential of producing biojet from Canada’s considerable forest residue resources, using the experience of Canada’s established forest products sector and the pellet sector.

The research will evaluate four to five different “near-to-commercialisation” technologies for the production of bio-oils, produced from sustainably sourced biomass residues, and the upgrading requirements that will be needed for each of these bio-oils to allow them to function as biojet fuels.

An eventual goal of the work will be to produce sufficient volumes of biojet fuel, using the best supply/cost pathway, for realistic evaluation.


Biocrudes produced using several different direct thermochemical liquefaction (TL) technologies and then upgraded by hydrotreatment, were demonstrated to contain a significant fraction of jet-range fuel. The biojet fractions were analyzed and demonstrated a high level of compliance with general standards for jet fuel based on ASTM certification requirements. Assessment of potential emission reductions of these biojet production pathways through life cycle analysis demonstrated that significant emission reductions were possible with many of the pathways.