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GARDN II Projects (2014-2019)

Aero Gas Turbine Engine Exhaust Non Volatile Particulate Matter (nvPM) emission baseline measurement and Modeling to predict




Invest in a design system for lowering nvPM.

Non-volatile particulate matter has been determined to be a potential source for GHG and detrimental to human health. Investing in nvPM reduction would not only benefit the environment, but help P&WC remain competitive in a market that is now demanding cleaner (lower emissions) engines on aircraft.



  • Measure nvPM on P&WC turbofan engines;
  • Report nvPM measurements to ICAO;
  • Develop nvPM/soot models with chemical kinetics, soot aerosol dynamics and radiation transports.